Glossary

The glossary provides explanations of the terms generally used within measurement technology.

We provide the definitions to the best of our knowledge.

 

If a required definition is not available, email us at info@delphin.de.

 

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10 BaseT10 BaseT (IEEE802.3 Clause 14) is a network cabling standard. Data is separately transmitted and received via two twisted pair cabling. The maximum transmission speed is 10 Mbps. The maximum segment length (e.g. from hub to PC) is limited to 100 m.
100 BaseT100 BaseT (IEEE802.3 Clause 14) is a network cabling standard. Data is separately transmitted and received via four twisted pair cabling. The maximum transmission speed is 100 Mbps. The maximum segment length (e.g. from hub to PC) is limited to 100 m.
ACAlternating current whereby the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction.
ActuatorActuators are used to convert input units to output units to produce the required actions and/or effects. Actuators can be valves, signal lamps, relays, control elements etc.
Adapter channelUsed by the ProfiSignal software to enable systems to function independently of hardware. Users can use a ProfiSignal script to assign physical channels to adapter channels during a program run.
Adaptive data recording procedureSaves measurement data only when a value changes (in accordance with the Devistore data storage procedure). This enables measurement data to have irregular time intervals. This minimizes the space required to store data over long time periods. 
AdjustmentThe term often used in connection with calibration and meaning the steps necessary to bring measurement errors to within the maximum permitted margin of error. This includes offset compensation and alterations to the signal gradient.
AmplifiersAmplifiers are used to isolate minor voltage/current variations. This creates galvanic isolation between the circuit and amplifier switch. Only voltage changes / current variations are transferred, not base voltages.
Analog-Digital measurement durationThe AD-measurement duration is the time available to the AD converter to compute the digital value from an analog channel. The AD-measurement duration corresponds to the sampling rate when only one channel is available/active.
Application variablesApplication variables are available in ProfiSignal Klicks and enable users to store data (e.g. numerics and texts/strings) during the running of the application. In contrast to local variables, application variables are not just valid for a specific module. They are valid for all the modules within an application.
ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange is an international standard that assigns a specific character to a byte. The standard ensures that virtually all computers use the same code. Under ASCII, each character is defined by seven bits. Up to 128 different characters can be defined using seven bits. The eighth bit can be used as a parity bit or to provide a further 128 character-set. The original ASCII code was made up of 33 non-printable and 95 printable characters.
BusManagerConfigurations program for TopMessage's MHouse software and the older Norm and MinMessage devices. The BusManager is used to define channels, virtual channels and storage groups. It is also the link between Message devices and the MHouse basic software package. The BusManager enables communication between hardware and software, and the transmission measurement data across networks between two or more BusManagers. The software has been replaced, since the launch of the TopMessage device series, with the DataService / Configurator and ProfiSignal software.
Calculation channelCalculation channels are channels within Message devices and in the ProfiSignal DataService which enable online computations. The results are then available as channels for further processing
CalibrationA thermocouple, for example, can undergo changes due chemical or mechanical interference or aging. The extent of such changes depends mainly on the type of load to which the component is exposed. Temperature sensors therefore require regular calibratation. This means comparing measured temperatures against real temperatures. Data is realigned during adjustment. Components in electrical equipments are exposed to aging and environmental conditions such as temperature swings. An annual calibration, e.g. to detect slow deviations, is often recommended to ensure correct functioning of the equipment.
CANThe CAN-Bus is a serial, asynchronous, field bus system. The CAN-Bus is described as being real-time capable. It transmits small data packets. In theory, 1 mbps can be transmitted up to a distance of 40 m, and 125 kbps up to 500 m. The maximum number of participants depends on the bus participants and their driver modules. 128 participants are possible using the current module. The bus structure is linear. The bus is is terminated with 120 Ohm resistors. CAN-Bus is the standard bus in many industries (e.g. the automotive industry). CAN-Bus has become established mainly due to its data security. The Can-Bus is used by TopMessage devices as the communication bus between master-slave devices and internally between I/O modules and CPU
Channel drop downTo enable the selection of channels in ProfiSignal.
Channel groupsA channel group functions as a folder for virtual channels in LogMessage devices. Channel groups can be used to maintain an overview of function blocks in large applications.
Characteristic curve diagramThe characteristic curve diagram enables ProfiSignal to generate characteristic curves, i.e. two mutually dependent measurements that are characteristic for a component or device. An example is the dependency of a current, flowing through a diode, on electrical voltage.
Combustion chamber vibrationDynamic pressure vibrations in the combustion chambers of gas turbines.
ConfigurationConfiguration refers to specific user requirements for computers, network or measurement data acquisition devices. For optimal user friendliness most systems can have their (operational) parameters pre-programmed, which can then be altered according to user requirements. This pre-programming is known as configuration. Message devices can be configured from a PC (via a network). The configuration is securely stored within the device.
ConfiguratorRefer to Data Service / Configurator
ControllerControllers (at least PID controllers) enable the continuous control of process values. Available controllers are P, I, PI and PID. A control path is that part of a system between the final control element for the control quantity (the process quantity to be controlled) and the control quantity's measuring point. The final control element and the measuring element are also part of the control path. Control paths can be divided into two categories: a) control paths with equalization: when a control or interference variable changes, the control variable searches a new final value (steady state) e.g. flow, temperature etc; b) control path without equalization: control paths that do not search a final value, e.g. fill-level.
Data loggerA data acquisition device that records analog and digital input signals as well as data from bus systems such as PROFIBUS-DP or RS232. Data loggers generally possess non-volatile data storage capabilities and connectors for mV/V- or mA signals. TopMessage and LogMessage devices can function as data loggers. These devices can function independently and use signal conditioning to record temperature, pressure and vibration signals.
DataServiceThe DataService is a component of the ProfiSignal software which manages communication between the measurement hardware (Message or Expert series) and the PC and/or ProfiSignal application. It also stores data from continuous processes and gives access to ProfiSignal from PCs and networks. The DataService includes systems for user and alarm management. The DataService can function unnoticed as a background Windows service.
DataService / ConfiguratorThe DataService / Configurator is the user interface for the DataService.
DCDirect current which flows in one direction. 
DevistoreDevistore is a procedure that compresses data for storage purposes. Tolerances are used to determine by how much measurement data needs to change before being recorded. Similar or only negligibly varying data is then recorded only once.
DHCPDynamic Host Configuration Protocol - A DHCP-Server automatically assigns network settings such as IP-addresses, network masks, gateways, DNS-servers, NTP-servers etc. to any network participant. This enables a network to be centrally managed and avoids each participant having to perform their own configurations.
Differentiator channelThe differentiator is a virtual channel for Message devices. The differentiator computes the change per time unit for a source channel.
DMS amplifierStrain measurements deliver small signals/signal variations. The DMS amplifier is used to acquire such signals. Different types of amplifier are available, e.g. carrier frequency differentiator, DC current differentiator and time evaluator using the TDC- procedure (Time to Digital Conversion).
DMS rosette strain channelMeasures three normal strains at a surface point. The DMS virtual channel then computes strain at the point of measurement.
DNSThe Domain Name System is one of the most important services in a network. It converts names such as www.delphin.de into computer-readable IP addresses (188.94.254.95).
Edit modeProfiSignal Basic and Klicks use an edit mode to design and amend applications, visualisations (VisuViews) and user interfaces. In contrast to the runtime mode, objects can be added, deleted or amended.
End moduleAn end module is a container in the ProfiSignal Klicks software that defines the end of a process or event. Every process in Klicks has one start and one or more end modules. End modules, like sequence modules, can contain script commands from the Klicks language.
Equidistant An equidistant data export sets a fixed time frame for data resolution.
EthernetRefer to LAN
EventEvents are used in ProfiSignal Klicks to interrupt processes when an event occurs (e.g. the clicking of a button). An event module then starts.
Event modulesEvent modules in ProfiSignal Klicks interrupt a process and perform specific code when an event occurs.
Event procedureEvents can be complete procedures. An event module represents an event's start module, sequence modules and one or more end modules. A module view refers to this as an event procedure.
Expert KeyA compact measurement data acquisition device. The Expert Key hardware is a device that can be connected via USB or Ethernet. It is equipped with digital and analog inputs and outputs that can acquire and process measurement data using the ProfiSignal Go PC software. Expert Key is intended for users in R&D, in testing and in laboratories and is suitable for industrial-grade applications.
FFTThe Fat Fourier Transformation is a procedure for processing frequency signals. The Fourier-Transformation transforms time-based signals (time-point, sampling rate) into frequency-based signals (frequency, amplitude, phase). Frequency based data is easier to process for many operations. Delphin's AMDT/V module enables FFT calculation to be performed within the Message device itself. This enables shaft and bearing vibrations to be computed and evaluated.
FirmwareModern technical equipment is made up of electronic components and microprocessors that require specific software. This software is known as firmware.
FlipFlop channelAn electronic component that can acquire and record two statuses. Current memory chips utilize this technology. Different flipflop types (SR, JK or D-FF) are available depending on the application. The flipflop types are available as virtual channels within Message devices and enable such devices to perform complex logic functions.
Frequency spectrumThe frequency spectrum is a function for frequencies. It represents the signal components associated with frequencies.
Function moduleFunction modules in the ProfiSignal Klicks software can be inserted into a module view and run parallel to sequence modules. Similar to other modules, function modules contain scripts which determine the module's function.
Galvanic isolationData acquisition and data logger devices must ensure its sensors and other components are protected against electrical interference. Full galvanic isolation means full electrical isolation of all interface modules and channels.
GatewayGateways exist between two networks. These networks  may differ (company networks and the internet) or have different network types (IPX and TCP/IP). Gateways are also used for differing data transfer mediums. A primary example is the email/SMS gateway.
I/O moduleIncludes the modules ADIT/ADVT/AMDT/ADFT/ADGT/AAST as well as DIOT/IOIT/OTPT. These are installed into TopMessage devices and provide analog and digital inputs/outputs.
ICPPiezoelectric sensor feeds. Sensor electronics are supplied with continuous current. A special feature is that power supply and sensor signal use the same cabling. By using ICP sensors, cabling can extend for several hundreds of meters before signal quality deteriorates.
IEPERefer to ICP
Init moduleThe Init module appears in the Klicks module view and performs settings, e.g. of variables at the start of a program. It is run when switching to runtime.
Integrator channelIs a virtual channel which establishes the integral of a signal. It can be used, for example, to establish flow levels from flow rate measurements or energy supply levels from power measurements. The channel has further functions such as edge and operating hour counters and stopwatch functions.
Inverse diodeInverse diodes protect electronic components from power surges. Power surges occur when inductive DC loads, e.g. relays or electric motors, are switched off. Surges occur because of a continued flow of power caused by self-induction. Inverse diodes are installed parallel to inductive sources. Inverse diodes are integrated in Message devices for switch outputs.
IP addressA unique address within computer networks to address and access equipment. IP addresses may refer to a single or a group of addressees.
IP-ForwardingForwards IP packets from one network interface to another network interface. IP-Forwarding is the basis of a gateway or router.
KeyphasorThe keyphasor is a reference point on rotating components. This enables, for example, the acquisition of rotation rates and phasing data.
KlicksKlicks is the configuration-based language within the ProfiSignal software. A special feature of Klicks is that instructions are composed by just clicking context menus. Instructions must not be learnt and syntax errors are avoided.
LANLocal Area Network refers to computer networks. Company or domestic networks are often referred to as LANs. Network elements such as servers, printers, Message devices and PCs are connected via wireless LAN or twisted pair cabling. Standard speeds range from 10 mbps and 1 gbps.
Local variablesLocal variables are available in ProfiSignal Klicks and enable the recording of texts / strings and numerics within a Klicks module.
Logic diagramA logic diagram is a special ProfiSignal trend. The diagram has two sections. The upper section displays analog signals, the lower section digital signals.
LogMessageA non-modular data logger with seven set configurations, digital and analog I/Os and a 1 GB internal data memory. LogMessage's use virtual channels for triggering, computations and threshold monitoring, similar to TopMessage devices.
LogMessage ConfiguratorRefer to TopMessage Configurator
Mains humMains hum refers to the effect on measurement equipment from electrical current and voltages (50 Hz / 60 Hz) from public and domestic energy networks. Mains hum can distort the functioning of measurement equipment and is suppressed in Expert and Message devices.
Marker channelA virtual channel within a Message device which can accept and process data from PC software. It can be used, for example, for variable threshold values
MasterA master is a centralized, processor-based Bus participant which regulates the communication and bus access of other (slave) devices within a network (e.g. in intranet applications). In TopMessage systems, the basis device (GBDT) undertakes the function of a master device. Additional devices (GSLT) are the slaves in a CAN network.
Measurement data fileA measurement data file with the suffix .mes (MessHaus) or .hds (ProfiSignal) contains recorded measurement data including time-stamps. The files can be opened and the data analysed using ProfiSignal.
Measurement databaseThe measurement database refers to a DataService background function to continuously record data from selected channels. ProfiSignal trends can request and portray data for a specific time range from a database. Databases do not require users to manage files and file names. Other networked PCs can also access data in a database. 
Measurement transducerA measurement device with an analog input signal and an analog output signal. The input signal might be the measurement for a voltage, current, resistance or charge. Transducers are often used for the galvanic isolation of multiple input signals and for converting voltages and currents into normal signals. Message and Expert devices have integrated signal conditioning to scale signal data to its original measurement unit.
Memory/storage groupsStorage groups are memory partitions in Message devices. They can be used to independently record and trigger data from analog and digital inputs/outputs as well as from virtual channels. PCs can access memory groups via network and remote data transfer connections. A variable scheduler is available to automatically read out memory groups.
Modbus-RTUThe modbus protocol is a communications protocol based on a client / server structure. Modbus is an open protocol and therefore acts as a standard. Modbus-RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) is based on serial and binary data transfer. This achieves high throughput but requires conversion into a readable format.
Modbus-TCPModbus-TCP is similar to Modbus-RTU but uses the TCP- / IP package (Port 502) for network infrastructures. Modbus-TCP is currently the norm and has a pre-standard status.
ModemA term made up from Modulator and Demodulator. A modem transmits digital signals over long distances between two digital terminals. Various systems exist for PC connection (serial, USB, network) and for data transfer standards (analog, ISDN, GSM, UMTS). These different systems use different types of data transfer technology. 
ModuleView ProfiSignal Klicks portrays processes in a module view. A process, e.g. the production of a product, is graphically portrayed according to its separate phases and with individual sequence modules. The modules are containers for script language which determines the function of the module.
MTUMaximum Transmission Unit signifies the maximum packet size for a network protocol. The MTU is determined through hardware settings.
Multiple applicationsMultiple applications can be run in parallel in ProfiSignal. This enables users to monitor multiple test stands from a single PC.
Net maskIn conjunction with a device's IP address, a net mask determines the IP address that the device is searching for within its own network, and which IP address it can be accessed with from other networks via a router. The net mask splits the IP address into a network prefix and a host identifier. The network prefix must be the same for all devices within the same network. The host identifier differs for each device within a network. The net masks for PCs within an IP network need to be identically configured.
NTPThe Network Time Protocol is a standard for the synchronization of times in packet-based networks. NTP uses the connection-free UDP transport protocol. Message devices synchronize their real-time clocks with a PC or a network server via NTP.
OCXThe OLE custom control is a program interface for Windows ActiveX. Message devices have an OCX-driver as well as a DLL (Dynamic Link Library) to integrate the device into in-house software applications (Visual C, Visual Basic etc.).
ODBCOpen Database Connectivity is a standard database interface that SQL (Standard Language Query) uses as a database language. ODBC provides ProfiSignal with a program interface to relational databases such as DB2, My-SQL, SQL-Server etc. for the exchange of testing parameters or test outcomes.
OffsetOffset in electronic measurement technology refers to a zero offset. This occurs with measurement amplifiers when amplifying voltage signals. Message devices are equipped with automated calibration and therefore performs zero point alignment at preset times. This calibration also compensates for temperature divergence and component aging.
OLEObject Linking and Embedding is a Microsoft protocol that ensures the functioning between different applications. OLE objects can be linked or embedded. OLE is used in the Microsoft Office suite, e.g. to insert an Excel table into a Word document. 
Online analysisDelphin's online analysis is the simplest method to portray measurement data on a PC. Channel selection is simple using ProfiSignal. After channel selection, online data is portrayed on the PC monitor. Recorder objects enable users to store measurement data at a PC. The online analysis is also equipped with all the functions from trends (pause, cursors, markers, calculation channels etc.).
OPCOLE for Process Control is a communications standard for components in automation systems. The aim of OPC is to provide an open interface for Windows based technology for OLE, COM and DCOM, which enables problem free, standardized data exchange between control/operation/monitoring systems, field equipment (e.g. Message devices), and office systems from different suppliers.
OPC ClientThe OPC-Client accesses channels from an OPC-server for data exchange. Data exchange is bidirectional (read and write). The server manages communication and the provision of channels. MHouse and ProfiSignal are equipped with an OPC-Client to enable data exchange with third-party hardware (such as PLC) or third-party software (such as SCADA).
OPC-ServerThe OPC-Server manages communication between the OPC-Server and OPC-Client(s). It provides channels and the data that the OPC-Client is to receive. Writeable channels can be written from an OPC-Client. MHouse and ProfiSignal are equipped with an OPC-Server to enable data exchange with third-party hardware (such as PLC) or third-party software (such as SCADA).
Oscilloscope modeThe oscilloscope mode enables ProfiSignal trends to be switched to a mode suited to high-speed signal processes. Oscilloscope mode is especially useful for high sampling rates with Expert Key devices.
ParameterViewThe ParameterView in ProfiSignal is a special form of visualisation with input fields, tables, checkboxes etc. It enables the saving and loading of parameter sets. Parameter input can include validity checks to ensure, for example, the input of mandatory fields.
PID-controller channelThe Proportional Intergal Differential controller is currently the most widely used and universal type of controller. It combines the three types of controller (P, I, D) and can be defined for series as well as for parallel structures. The main advantage of PID controllers over normal controllers is PID's adaptability to control paths. At a constant setpoint, PID controllers prevent control deviations for control and disturbance overshoots, compensates for control system delays, and thereby simplifies the control system. The I-element negatively affects speed to avoid static control deviations. PID controllers can not be used for control paths with dominant deadbands
PLC programmingProgrammable Logic Controllers - independent system for the controlling and regulating of processes. Programming complies to the IEC 1131-3 guidelines. Languages available are KOP, FUP or AWL.
Potential equalizationPotential equalization concerns an electrically conductive connection that can prevent (or at least reduce) potential differences and therefore electrical voltage between two conductive points (e.g. housings), as well as earth resistance. The German standard VDE DIN VDE 0100 Part 200 concerns electrical connections that achieve virtual potential equalization of electrical components and external conductive components. Ohm's law states that voltage occurs from the earth resistance of an earth connection. This voltage must be brought down to hazard-free levels via short connections with large diameters. 
Potential isolationPotential isolation is a requirement in analog inputs to prevent electrical interference in sensors and other system components. Potential isolation between channels prevents, for example, ground loops, which can result in erroneous measurement values and can negatively affect processes. Analog inputs in Message device's are potentially isolated.
PPPPoint to Point Protocol is a network protocol for connecting networking nodes. Connection takes place in 4 phases: link establishment; authentication; network layer protocol; link termination.
Process runA process run in ProfiSignal Klicks represents a process in a module view. A process, e.g. the production of a product, is graphically portrayed in its individual phases and with individual sequence modules. The modules are containers for script language which determines the function of the module.
Process visualizationTo visualize activities and processes, e.g. to improve control over processes using a visualization system. ProfiSignal Basic is equipped with a process visualization function to portray, for example, fill- levels in tanks, oven temperatures and valve positions.
Profibus-DPA field bus system for automation technology and the German national standard for industrial automation. Profibus is intended for Decentralized Peripherals (DP). Profibus-DP enables users to transfer simple digital and analog input/output groups as well as intelligent signal and process data units to on-site locations. This saves on cabling costs. Profibus-DP is suitable mainly for time-sensitive applications and automated production systems. Message devices have an optional PROFIBUS interface. ProfiMessage is supplied with redundant PROFIBUS.
ProfiMessageProfiMessage devices are Linux-based, independently functioning MSR-systems that can be equipped with analog and digital input cards. They are also equipped with a redundant PROFIBUS and an internal data storage memory of up to 16 GB, i.e. to store up to 2 billion measurement values plus time-stamps. Variable pre and post triggers are available for any number of storage groups. Virtual channels enable data pre-processing such as threshold monitoring, formula computations and logic and control functions. A ProfiMessage can have any number of channels via slave devices. The ProfiSignal software is available for users to perform data evaluation, configuration and automation.
ProfiSignal BasicA software package to operate and observe measurement processes and to portray and analyze online and offline measurement data.
ProfiSignal GoA software package to portray, analyse and archive online and offline measurement data.
ProfiSignal KlicksA software package for automation and report generation. ProfiSignal Klicks extends ProfiSignal Basic with a script language and views for program modules and parameter input. Options are also available for report generation and linking functions to relational databases.
Pt100(0) / RTD Temperature sensor that functions according to resistance, i.e. the sensor's resistance increases with increasing temperature. Message devices measure these sensors using 4-wire technology. This eliminates all output resistance. Message devices compensate for the non-linear relationship between resistance and temperature. 100 indicates a resistance of 100 Ohms at 0°C. Other types are available: e.g. Pt50, Pt100 up to Pt1000.
Pulse width modulation (PWM)PWM is a type of modulation to regulate electrical power. At a constant frequency, a signal's duty cycle undergoes modulation (to pulse width and not length). A PWM signal is usually modulated via a low pass. The resulting demodulated measurement corresponds to an arithmetic mean or the average height of the area below the modulated measurement. An example is a switch that continuously switches heating on and off. The longer the switch is on, the higher the average heating power.
PWMRefer to pulse width modulation
Real timeThe term used for high-speed processes that require immediate responses to an input value. It often means minimal delay. The technically correct meaning concerns a system's response time within a given time range. The term does not reveal anything about a systems speed or performance.
RecorderA ProfiSignal recorder enables the recording of measurement data for batch processes. Recordings can be directly linked to trends to graphically portray the data. The recorder is equipped with triggering functions such as level, edge and single-step triggering, as well as pre and post triggering. Data is stored in .hds files which can be opened and analysed in ProfiSignal.
Reference measuring pointA reference measuring point is required to measure temperatures with thermocouples. External reference measuring point blocks are installed in 64 KTM devices to achieve precision temperature measurement by eliminating external interference.
ReportThe report is a powerful tool in ProfiSignal Basic and Klicks to generate standard reports / documentation. Reports differ to static PDF files in that each measurement value is recorded and can be accessed by double-clicking on a report's diagram to enable further analysis (data export, zoom, markers, cursors, calculation channels). Reports can be saved under specific names and in PDF format.
Resistance measurementRefer to Pt100
ResolutionEvery analog signal needs to be digitalised in order to be processed by a PC. The resolution is the measure for quantifying signals. Message devices have a 24 bit resolution. Message devices generally operate with a 24-bit resolution, Expert devices with 18-bits.
RMSThe Root Mean Square in electro-technology is the RMS of a unit of measurement that changes over time. It is primarily used for AC voltage/currents. 
Root mean squareRefer to RMS
RS 232The Recommended Standard Number 232 is the oldest and commonest interface standard. It is also known as the V.24-interface. All signals are referenced to earth (earth symmetrical interface). High rate: 2 to- 6 V, low rate: + 3 to 30 V; approved cable length up to 15 m; transfer rate up to 115 KBit/s; for point connection between 2 participants. TopMessage devices are equipped with two RS232 interfaces. They can also function as RS485/422 interfaces.
RS 485Recommended Standard Number 485; high-rate: 1.5 to 6 V, low rate: + 1.5 to 6 V; dual or 4-wire connection; permitted cable length of up to 1200 m; transfer rate of up to 10 Mbit/s. Up to 32 participants can be connected to a RS485-bus (senders / receivers). TopMessage devices are equipped with two RS485 interfaces. They can also function as RS485/422 interfaces.
RuntimeProfiSignal Basic and Klicks distinguishes between runtime and edit modes. Projects and applications can be generated and amended in edit mode. In runtime mode these can only be operated. In runtime, no amendments can be made to projects and their source texts. ProfiSignal is available as a less expensive runtime version that enables users to run, but not edit, their projects. This protects projects against unauthorized changes while providing a fully functioning system.
Runtime modeApplications generated by ProfiSignal cannot be amended in runtime mode. Runtime mode enables users to operate and monitor objects such as switches, displays and diagrams, that have been inserted in edit mode.
Sampling rateThe sampling rate is the frequency at which a signal is sampled and converted into a time-discrete signal. The sampling rate includes the number of measurements per second and is delivered in Hertz (Hz) or samples per second (Samples/s).
ScalingMeasurement values such as pressure, temperature or power require scaling to a standard signal. There is lineal scaling (e.g. for pressure measurements) and non-lineal scaling (e.g. for thermocouples). Both methods are available in Message and Expert devices.
SCPIStandard Command for Programmable Instruments is a special instruction set for measurement technology. Commands are in ASCII-text format. Communication is not predefined and often occurs via bus systems such as GPIB, RS232, USB, VXI or LXI.
SensorA sensor is an electronic component to acquire physical or chemical properties such as pressure, sound, heat, pH values etc. Measurements are acquired and converted into measurement units. To convert electrical units (volts, current) into original units, Message and Expert devices are equipped with integrated signal conditioning. This eliminates the need for costly conversion procedures. Different types of sensor can be connected to the inputs of Expert and Message devices. The inputs are universal and can acquire standard units of measurement such as voltages, currents and resistances.
Sequence moduleSequence modules are containers for script in the ProfiSignal Klicks MSR-software. These modules are processed sequentially and follow a start or event module. Multiple sequence modules can be positioned and run one after the other. An end module always completes a run procedure.
Serial interfacesSerial interfaces are used for data exchange between computers and peripheral equipment. Serial data transfers previously took place via mouse or modem. Data (bits) are transferred serially along cabling. This refers to CCITT-V.24 or RS232 interfaces, with Ethernet, USB, Firewire, SATA, CAN-Bus or RS-485 also based on serial data transfer. The Top and ProfiMessage devices have two and four switchable RS232/485 interfaces respectively. These enable communication with other peripheral equipment (e.g. Sartorius balances, magnetic stirrers).
ShieldingShielding protects electrical equipment against distortions. Shielded cabling is recommended for measurement and control technology to minimize its small and sensitive signals. Tin or foil is often used as shielding (switch cabinets).
ShuntCurrent measurement based on voltages drops for a defined resistance. This resistance is generally known as the shunt. The required shunts can be selected for Delphin products and externally connected. Conversion to current values then occurs internally.
Sigma Delta converterFunctions on the principle of signals with extremely high sampling rates. Sampling rates in the MHz range, i.e. that exceed the rates from Nyquist frequencies, have a resolution of just one byte. The resolution can be raised by connecting a digital low pass filter which also reduces the data rate. Sigma-Delta-A/D converters operate for sampling frequencies of up to 100 kHz and conversion precision of up to 24-bits.
Signal conditioningPhysical or electrical measurement units are acquired from equipment. These signals need converting to standard signal types. For example, a pressure measurement is converted to a 0/4 ... 20mA signal or a temperature to a 0 ... 10V signal. Converters are used for such signal conditioning. These can be separate devices known as amplifiers. Signal conditioning is integrated into Message devices. Signals such as Pt100(0), thermocouples, mA or mV signals can be connected directly to analog inputs.
SlaveA slave is a hardware device that is controlled and managed from a master device. 
SMSShort Message Service (text messaging) enable the transmission of short texts across mobile and landline networks (depending on provider). Message devices use a GSM-modem to send text messages for events such as threshold violations and alarms.
Software channelsSoftware channels (previously known as virtual channels) are channels set up in the DataService using ProfiSignal. These channels are test channels to generate test signals for ProfiSignal projects, to exchange data, to run calculation channels etc. in the DataService.
SQLRefer to ODBC
Status monitoringRefer to Watchdog
Structure chartRefer to ModuleView
SubmoduleA submodule is a module in the module view in ProfiSignal Klicks. Like other Klicks modules, it contains Klicks programming code but does not have a fixed run sequence with start and end modules. Submodules are called from other modules using a script command and transferable parameters. Submodules operate like functions.
SubnetRefer to subnet mask
System reportMessage devices store previous activity and events to enable diagnostics to be performed in the event of errors. The system report records device configurations, components etc. The report is read using the the DataService / Configurator and/or TopMessage Configurator.
TCP/IPTransmission Control Protocol - the acknowledged standard for data exchange in a heterogeneous networks. TCP/IP can be used in local networks for communication between different types of hardware as well as providing LAN and WAN access. TCP ensures there is no data loss during data exchange. In contrast to the UDP protocol, confirmation is sent to the sender for every data packet transmitted. TCP is allocated Level 4 in the OSI/ISO interface model.
TelnetTelecommunication Network is a basic network protocol. It uses character-based data transfer via a TCP/IP connection. It has no encryption and is being increasingly replaced by Secure-Shell-Protocol (SSH). Port 23 is the default port. Clients are available to any network compatible operating system.
ThermocoupleA sensor used as temperature probe on the basis of the Seebeck effect. The thermocouple sensor can either be made up of two touching metals (soldered or welded), or as a semi-conductor. Self-calibrating thermocouple sensors are capable of automatically generating calibration points. Thermocouples can be directly connected to Message device's analog inputs. A reference junction is provided.
Thermocouple typesThermocouples can use different types of metal. The thermocouple types differ according to temperature ranges, linearity and precision. The following list gives type and typical temperature range: Typ K (NiCr-NiAl) 0 ... 1.100°C, Typ T (Cu-CuNi) -185 ... 300°C, Typ J (Fe-CuNi) 20 ... 700°C, Typ N (NiCrSi-NiSi) 0 ... 1.100°C, Typ E (NiCr-CuNi) 0 ... 80°C, Typ R (Pt13Rh-Pt) 0 ... 1.600 °C, Typ S (Pt10Rh-Pt) 0 ... 1.550°C, Typ B (Pt30Rh-Pt6Rh) 100 ... 1.600 °C.
TopLabTopLab devices are independently functioning MSR-systems that can be equipped with analog and digital input cards. They are also equipped with Profibus and an internal data storage memory of up to 1GB, i.e. to store up to 32 billion measurement values plus time-stamps. Variable post triggers are available for any number of storage groups. Virtual channels enable pre-processing such as threshold monitoring, formula computations and logic and control functions. A TopLab master can have any number of channels via slave devices. The ProfiSignal software is enable users to perform data evaluation, configuration and automation. The device uses 4 mm laboratory plugs to connect sensors and is housed in a robust metal unit.
TopMessageTopMessage devices are independently functioning MSR-systems that can be equipped with analog and digital input cards. They are also equipped with Profibus and an internal data storage memory of up to 1GB, i.e. to store up to 32 billion measurement values plus time-stamps. Variable post triggers are available for any number of storage groups. Virtual channels enables pre-processing such as threshold monitoring, formula computations and logic and control functions. A TopMessage master can function with 1000 channels in conjunction with slave devices. The ProfiSignal software is available for users to perform data evaluation, configuration and automation. Sensor connection takes place via screw terminals. The device is equipped for rail mounting in switch cabinets.
TopMessage ConfiguratorA program to configure devices from the LogMessage series. The LogMessage Configurator enables users to individually select sensor types, scaling, sampling rates etc. for each channel. Memory/storage groups can also be configured and channels set up such as threshold values and computation channels.
TrendsTrends are the online/offline graphical portrayal of analog and digital signals as yt-diagrams. Trends are available in ProfiSignal as online analyses and visualizations (VisuView).
TriggerA signal which "triggers" a specific process, e.g. start/stop data recording.
TRMSTrue root mean square is not fundamentally different to root mean square. However, in the development of electronic measurement devices, the root mean square is often referred to, although what has actually been measured has been the arithmetic mean of a sine-form voltage. The conversion factor for a 50 Hz sine AC voltage is taken into account when measuring series resistance. However, in modern electro-technology, voltage can deviate significantly from the sine-form. The difference is soon noticed by devices using mathematical principles. Such devices are therefore referred to as True-RMS (true root mean square).
True RMSRefer to TRMS
UDPThe User Datagramm Protocol is a minimum, connection-free network protocol that enables data to arrive at the correct application. An advantage of UDP is its speed because it does not require address overheads, acknowledgements etc. Data transfer is however insecure and requires the application itself to perform data security procedures.
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems is the third generation mobile communication standard (3G) with a transfer rate of up to 14.4 MBit (with HSDPA). VPN connections to Message devices are possible via a UMTS-router. This enables data to be accessed remotely by a PC. UMTS enables both read-out and online data transfer which, under the GSM-Standard, is restricted. Remote online visualization and operation is possible via UMTS. UMTS enables data transfer not only between PC and Message device but also in M2M connections.
USB interfaceThe Universal Serial Bus is a serial bus system to connect computers with external hardware. USB-equipment can be plugged and unplugged during operation (hotplug-operation). USBs have high rates of data transfer and integrated power supply. Expert Key devices communicate with PCs via USB interfaces.
ValidationEvidence, in accordance with regulations on good practice, that procedures, processes, equipment, materials and systems actually perform as they are expected to perform.
VariableVariables enable texts and strings to be recorded in ProfiSignal Klicks. Variables may change during a program run. Local and application variables are processed in the same way.
ViewerThe ProfiSignal Viewer enables the viewing and analysis of offline measurement data files and ProfiSignal reports. Data export functions are also available plus trend analysis functions such as markers, offline calculation channels, cursors etc.
Virtual channelsVirtual channels provide Message devices with additional functions. A system's functionality can be enhanced via virtual channels. Virtual channels include calculation channels, threshold value channels, PID controllers, logic functions, integrators etc. They run independently within Message devices and enable the hardware to perform functions such as monitoring and alerts.
Visualization objectsVisualization objects are the operating and viewing objects used in VisuViews in ProfiSignal Basic and Klicks. They include buttons, switches, LEDs, digital displays and a range of diagram types, images and input fields.
VisuViewVisuViews are generated in applications in ProfiSignal Basic and Klicks and function as HMI-interfaces. Visualization objects are positioned on the VisuView. The objects can then be operated during runtime. Display objects, such as digital/analog displays, are connected to channels in edit mode and can then display channel data in runtime.
WatchdogThe Watchdog monitors a system or its individual components and reports any errors.
X-MessageA virtual channel in LogMessage devices which enables data exchange between devices without PC support.